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ANC camps

Explanation
The ANC established bases in several African countries. The Department of Intelligence and Security (DIS), together with the military headquarters of MK, had control over residential centres and the Angolan camps, including 'Camp 32' or the Morris Seabelo Rehabilitation Centre (popularly known as 'Quatro'), Panga, Viana and the Nova Catengue camp. Following the SADF bombing of Nova Catengue camp in 1979, there was an atmosphere of paranoia about infiltration by South African agents. A number of ANC members were detained and tortured; some died as a result of assaults and some were executed. Dissatisfaction in MK training camps in Angola led to mutinies at the Viana and Pango camps during 1984. Both mutinies were put down with loss of lives on both sides. Many MK members were detained in connection with the uprisings, and some were tortured. Two groups of mutineers were tried by military tribunals and seven were executed.

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110 In 1988, when the ANC was obliged to leave Angola in terms of the New York Accords, the camps were closed and prisoners transferred to ANC camps in Tanzania or prisons in Uganda. In August 1991, the last of the mutineers was released from detention in Uganda and returned to South Africa. The ...
... night vigil killings on 26 March 1991, fifteen people are shot dead and at least eighteen are injured in an attack on a funeral vigil for an ANC member who died in fighting in Alexandra which raged for three days. Political prisoners engage in hunger strikes in April and May to ...
Gross violations of human rights committed in ANC ranks and in exile 98 The Commission heard accounts of violations committed by members of the ANC’s security structures and by guards of internment camps such as Camp 32 (Quatro), and of orders given or policies adopted by those in political ...
... also had sight of the report of the Douglas Commission. These commissions of inquiry investigated allegations of human rights abuses in the ANC camps and in exile. The Commission also received evidence from victims testifying to their experiences both in the camps and in exile. 64. The ...
... 42 We have been accused, too, of an ANC bias for refusing to hold public hearings over the gross violations that allegedly took place in the ANC camps in Angola. The fact is that a few people did come forward to testify at human rights violations hearings about what they say happened to ...
Killing of individual ‘enemies’ and ‘defectors’ 46 In the late 1970s, the ANC began to target specific police officers and perceived ‘collaborators’. Initially those killed were former ANC members who had turned state witness in political trials. The ANC justified these killings in ...
... signing of the Nkomati Accord and a similar earlier negotiated agreement with Swaziland, together with the considerable success of the Security Branch’s anti-terrorist units, held out the promise that MK’s supply and infiltration routes had been severely compromised if not totally cut off. ...
■ THE LIBERATION MOVEMENTS 130 This section includes the Commission’s findings on the ANC, PAC, UDF and on ANC national executive member, Ms Winnie Madikizela-Mandela. 131 In reviewing the activities of the ANC and PAC, the Commission endorsed the position in international law that the ...
... she was given different dates for the alleged incident. At the time, there were disclosures in the press about torture and executions in ANC camps. This led the family to suspect that Xola Jebe might have died as a result of abuse and that the contradictory versions they were hearing ...
... 29 hearing of the Commission that the training was lawful and was intended to protect members of Inkatha from unlawful attacks by members of the ANC/SACP/COSATU. The deputy camp commander, Mr Thompson Xesibe, was also an IFP member and a ‘Caprivi trainee’. KZP members, former SAP and SADF ...
submission alleges that Mahamba became a fully-fledged member of the security police in 1976 and in that capacity passed on strategic information on ANC camps and residences to the security police, leading to the bombardment and destruction of Catengue Camp in 1979. 132 Several members of the ...
... It was later renamed Inkatha ka-Zulu (emblem of the unity of the Zulu nation). By 1933, the organisation was largely inactive due to lack of finance and it remained so until its revival by Chief Buthelezi in 1969. In 1970, the Zululand Territorial Authority (ZTA) was established and Chief ...
... for five years. The Black People’s Convention (BPC) is launched as an umbrella body to co-ordinate black consciousness groups. The 1 Reconnaissance Regiment of the SADF is established. Operation Plathond, a joint SADF/BOSS operation to train dissident Zambians in the Caprivi Strip, is ...
... injuries. The government announces in March that it has dismantled six nuclear bombs built secretly before 1989. Six children are killed by ANC supporters on 2 March and ten are killed by IFP supporters on 5 March in two separate bus ambushes Table Mountain, Natal. Chris Hani is ...
... recognises that it is able to make some very detailed observations and findings about the abuse of human rights in the military camps of the ANC owing to the fact that the ANC had earlier initiated a number of its own enquiries, namely the Stuart report, an investigation into the death of ...
... Caculama camp. He was held there until May 1984 and was released when he “told them what they wanted to hear”. His name does not appear in the ANC records submitted to the Commission. 176 Mr Ronnie Buyaphi Singer Masango [CT00743/OUT] was involved in the 1983 mutiny in Angola because he ...
July 1993 to May 1994: resistance and insurrection 239 In the run-up to the 1994 elections, Inkatha came into conflict with the central government and the Transitional Executive Council (TEC) concerning the issue of independence and sovereignty for KwaZulu. Inkatha adopted a publicly declared ...
Gross violations of human rights committed by the ANC in exile 137 The Commission has studied the reports of the Stuart, Skweyiya, Sachs and Motsuenyane commissions of enquiry appointed by the ANC, as well as that of the Douglas Commission, into various forms of human rights abuse in exile. It ...
1984 Mutinies by frustrated MK soldiers at ANC camps Viana and Pango are crushed in early 1984, resulting in the execution of seven mutineers and the imprisonment of others at Quatro rehabilitation camp. The Lusaka agreement between South Africa and Angola is signed in February, after South ...
Self-defence units in the Vaal 603 The formation of armed militias in the Vaal was internally sanctioned by the ANC in November 1990 in response to the conflict with between the ANC and IFP in the area. However, the formation of SDUs precipitated a power struggle in Sebokeng between ...
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