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East Rand violence

Explanation
From mid-1985 until the early 1990s, East Rand townships experienced some of the most violent conflict ever experienced in the PWV area. Train violence, taxi violence, conflict between township residents and hostels, between ANC self-defence units (SDUs) and IFP self-protection units (SPUs) and the activities of the Khumalo gang resulted in an unprecedented number of deaths and injuries. Covert operations by security force members also contributed to a general escalation of violence in the region. The security forces repeatedly ignored warnings of impending attacks and frequently refused to become involved in what it termed the 'black-on-black' conflict. They were accused by many of orchestrating and fanning conflict in order to undermine and weaken the recently unbanned ANC.

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issuing membership cards. 389 Over the next two years, violence escalated as the ANC came into conflict with newly-established IFP branches on the East Rand. The simmering violence in KwaZulu and Natal intensified. Violent conflict also erupted between ANC and PAC members, between supporters of ...
... commuters were thrown from trains when they boarded the ‘wrong’ coach (did not have the appropriate political affiliation or ethnic identity). East Rand resident, Mr Paulos Nkondo told the Commission that he got into the ‘wrong’ coach in July 1991 when passengers were violently attacked. ...
... to board train number 7810 were shot at from the train by a group of armed men. Three people were killed. 658 The primary form of violence on East Rand train lines were continuous small-scale attacks initiated by one or two attackers. 659 Some IFP leaders publicly dissociated themselves ...
East Rand: Violations committed by SDUs and other ANC members 449 Violent conflict started in late 1990 in the townships of East Rand, when the ANC suspended the armed struggle, and the IFP was established as a political party and set up branches in hostels in various Reef townships. 450 Many ...
... Party (IFP) rally at Sebokeng in the Vaal Triangle, which left twenty-seven people dead, it moved rapidly to the Transvaal, spreading to the East Rand, Soweto, the West Rand and Alexandra townships. In each case, non-Zulu hostel-dwellers were driven out of the hostels, which became ...
... following the 1990 unbanning of organisations, violence escalated as the ANC came into conflict with newly established IFP branches on the East Rand, The simmering violence in Natal reached new heights. Violent conflict also erupted between the ANC and PAC members, members of homeland ...
... of torture. 63 Mr Potwala Saboshego described his experience of torture. He was seventeen years old at the time and politically active on the East Rand. He described the circumstances of his arrest and subsequent torture by the security forces: It was in 1986, in August. I was [returning] ...
... National Peace Accord. Approximately 300 members of the Hostel-Dwellers Association on their way to a peace meeting at the Thokoza stadium on the East Rand were sprayed with gunfire by three AK-47 wielding gunmen, killing at least twenty-three people.54 By the following night, forty-two people ...
He was told that Special Forces were able to reduce the timing device in a hand grenade to zero seconds. These hand grenades were later given to the East Rand activists. The distribution of booby-trapped hand grenades to young activists on the East Rand was seen as a means of re-establishing ...
... as communities came under attack by clandestine forces, often operating with the tacit approval and even support of the security forces. The East Rand in the early 1990s offered a clear example of this, with young people testifying about their involvement in violent operations in ...
overtly sided with attackers became commonplace during the 1990s. In August 1990, when Thokoza hostel residents attacked Phola Park squatters on the East Rand, the police issued a statement declaring that they would “not get involved in a political fight” between Zulus and Xhosas.37 The ANC ...
The Khumalo gang 689 The Khumalo Gang, based in Thokoza, was another major participant in the East Rand conflict. By 1993, Reverend Mbhekisini Khumalo, leader of the gang, had been personally linked to at least nine murders and five attempted murders. The gang quickly became associated with the ...
... Winnie Makubela – who were on an errand for Ms Gloria Mahlope [JB03425/01 ERKAT], were abducted into Mshayazafe hostel in Thokoza on the East Rand and raped. Two of the girls were stabbed and shot dead. Winnie Makubela was shot and wounded but managed to escape. Ms Gloria Mahlope said: ...
... committed by the Mbokodo vigilante group were discussed. Testimony was given on the murder of KwaNdebele government minister Piet Ntuli. n East Rand (4-7 February 1997). This week-long hearing took place in Duduza, Benoni and Vosloorus. The East Rand experienced more intensive violence ...
violence in the PWV region was signalled by a series of attacks on the Sebokeng Hostel beginning on July 22 1990. The violence rapidly spread to the East Rand, Soweto, the West Rand and Alexandra township. Over 200 township residents were killed in large-scale massacres perpetrated by ...
the deaths of 200 people whom he had examined after they died in detention. In 1993, torture equipment was found at the ISU base in Vosloorus on the East Rand and a special crime combating group, the Yankee Squad, was disbanded after numerous allegations of misconduct were made against the unit, ...
... poorly planned attack on a taxi that was not in the vicinity of a polling station. 319. The Committee was satisfied that the applicants could at least have been seen as supporters of the AWB and believed themselves to be members. 3 2 0 . The Committee accepted the uncontradicted evidence that ...
... Background to self-defence units 155. In the period 1990 to 1994, self-defence units (SDUs) emerged in many urban townships in the PWV, Eastern Cape, Transkei and Ciskei, Western Cape, Orange Free State and in both urban and rural areas of KwaZulu and Natal. In the PWV and ...
was reflected in the intensified destabilisation of the political environment. In some areas, such as Soweto during the early 1990s and later in the East Rand, violence degenerated into an ongoing war of attrition with hundreds of people fleeing their homes to escape the killing. 538 Conflict ...
in 257 confirmed incidents. The report also showed that IFP-supporting hostels provided the base for massive attacks on squatter camps, and that at least 915 of the total number of 2271 killed during the period were the result of attacks from these hostels. 15. The report suggested that the ...
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