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Imbokodo (Mbokodo)

Explanation
an organisation established in 1985 by KwaNdebele's political elite to realise the KwaNdebele government's drive to incorporate the areas of Moutse and Leandra in order to make the homeland a more viable geographic and political entity. Imbokodo members carried out brutal attacks in which hundreds of ordinary residents were assaulted and killed. These attacks radicalised a previously apolitical population. 'Comrades', in turn, ruthlessly and methodically attacked suspected Imbokodo members and their families. Imbokodo members were therefore both perpetrators and victims of the violence that engulfed and nearly destroyed the homeland from mid-1995 to 1988.

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She had her home burnt down on 16 June 1986 in Mathyzensloop, KwaNdebele, during a night vigil for ‘comrades’ killed by Imbokodo vigilantes and KwaNdebele Defence Force members. Mathyzensloop residents reportedly fled to the hills to escape the violence.
Was beaten by Imbokodo vigilantes in Moutse, KwaNdebele, on 21 April 1986 following violence over the incorporation of Moutse into KwaNdebele.
Was severely tortured and mutilated by Imbokodo vigilantes in Moutse, KwaNdebele, on 1 January 1986 during conflict over the incorporation of Moutse into KwaNdebele.
Was stabbed and hacked by Imbokodo vigilantes at Moutse, KwaNdebele, on 1 January 1986 during conflict over incorporation into KwaNdebele.
Was abducted, along with her husband and daughter, from their home in Vlaklaagte, KwaNdebele, by Imbokodo vigilantes on 27 and 28 April 1986. Ms Skosana and her 20-month old daughter were assaulted. Her husband’s mutilated body was found the next day.
A UDF supporter who was abducted after he was shot by members of the Security Forces in Moutse, KwaNdebele, in 1986 during conflict between Imbokodo vigilantes and residents resisting the incorporation of Moutse into KwaNdebele. Mr Ntuli has never been seen since.
Was shot by members of the Imbokodo vigilantes on 30 July 1986 in Siyabuswa, KwaNdebele, because of his opposition to incorporation into KwaNdebele.
Was detained and tortured by Imbokodo vigilantes in Tweefontein, KwaNdebele, on 12 June 1986 during conflict over the incorporation of Moutse into KwaNdebele.
Was severely injured in Mhluzi, Middelburg, Tvl, on 7 July 1986 when he was sjambokked by Imbokodo vigilantes looking for his brother, an ANC supporter instrumental in mobilising residents against the incorporation of Moutse into KwaNdebele.
A KwaNdebele government minister and Imbokodo leader who was killed in a car bomb explosion in Siyabuswa, KwaNdebele, on 29 July 1986. Members of the Special Forces of the SADF and the Security Branch of the SAP applied for amnesty for this attack.
She had her home damaged in an arson attack by Imbokodo vigilantes in Mathyzensloop, KwaNdebele, on 27 June 1986 during violent conflict over KwaNdebele independence.
Was shot dead on 1 January 1986 in Kgobokwane, KwaNdebele, by Imbokodo vigilantes who raided villages that day to assert their control over the newly incorporated Moutse.
Was forced to walk on hot coals by Imbokodo members in Siyabuswa, KwaNdebele, in 1986 during conflict over the independence of KwaNdebele.
Was severely beaten by iMbokodo vigilantes in 1986 because he had an argument with a member of the CID. Mr Ngwenya was taken to the Kwaggafontein police station where he was assaulted again.
Was stoned and burnt with a petrol bomb in KwaNdebele, on 3 July 1986 by UDF supporters who suspected him of being an informer for the Imbokodo vigilante group. At the time, local resistance to incorporation into KwaNdebele was forcing homeland supporters and vigilantes out of the area.
Was abducted and severely beaten by Imbokodo members in KwaNdebele, on 26 December 1985 during conflict over the proposed independence of KwaNdebele.
Was abducted in May 1986 and tortured for two days in the veld near Vaalbank, KwaNdebele, by named Imbokodo members, during local resistance to incorporation into an independent KwaNdebele. Mr Mahlangu`s brothers were among several others abducted and tortured with him. Some of the perpetrators ...
Was severely assaulted when she was kicked and beaten with a knobkierie by a named member of the Imbokodo group in Katsibane, KwaNdebele, in May 1981 during conflict between the community and the tribal authority over the proposed independence of KwaNdebele.
Was burnt to death by `comrades` in Bronkhorstspruit, Transvaal, on 1 September 1986 during conflict between the UDF and the Imbokodo group over KwaNdebele independence. Her husband was killed in the same attack.
Was abducted and beaten by Imbokodo vigilantes in Kwarrielaagte, KwaNdebele, on 31 December 1985 during conflict over KwaNdebele`s independence.
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