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Imbokodo (Mbokodo)

Explanation
an organisation established in 1985 by KwaNdebele's political elite to realise the KwaNdebele government's drive to incorporate the areas of Moutse and Leandra in order to make the homeland a more viable geographic and political entity. Imbokodo members carried out brutal attacks in which hundreds of ordinary residents were assaulted and killed. These attacks radicalised a previously apolitical population. 'Comrades', in turn, ruthlessly and methodically attacked suspected Imbokodo members and their families. Imbokodo members were therefore both perpetrators and victims of the violence that engulfed and nearly destroyed the homeland from mid-1995 to 1988.

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Was abducted and tortured by named Imbokodo members for two days in the veld near Vaalbank, KwaNdebele, in May 1986, during local resistance to incorporation into KwaNdebele. Mr Mahlangu`s brothers and several others were abducted and tortured with him. Some of the perpetrators were charged, but ...
A member of the Kwa-Ndebele Legislative Assembly and Imbokodo who was burnt when `comrades` poured petrol over him and set him alight in KwaNdebele during conflict over proposed independence in 1986.
Was burnt to death by named `comrades` in Bronkhorstspruit, Transvaal, on 1 September 1986 during conflict between the UDF and the Imbokodo over KwaNdebele independence. His wife was killed in the same attack.
She lost her home in an arson attack by perpetrators opposed to the Kwa-Ndebele government and Imbokodo vigilantes in KwaMhlanga, KwaNdebele, on 5 May 1986. Ms Mahlangu`s husband served in the KwaNdebele Chiefs` Council when residents opposed incorporation into the newly independent KwaNdebele, ...
Was abducted, beaten and tortured by Imbokodo vigilantes in Vaalbank, KwaNdebele, in May 1986 during conflict over the proposed independence of KwaNdebele.
Was abducted from his home in Ntwane, KwaNdebele, by Imbokodo vigilantes led by named KwaNdebele government ministers on 1 January 1986 and assaulted at the Siyabuswa community hall in an attempt to suppress resistance to incorporation into KwaNdebele.
Was shot dead by members of the SADF and Imbokodo group in Dennilton, KwaNdebele, on 1 January 1986 while attending a meeting at the Royal Kraal to discuss the abduction of some villagers by the Defence Force. Soon after the meeting started, the soldiers tear-gassed and sjambokked those attending.
An ANC supporter who was shot and injured in Tweefontein, KwaNdebele, in April 1986 when Imbokodo members tried to force him to become a vigilante during violent conflict over incorporation.
Was abducted and beaten by Imbokodo members in KwaNdebele, on 15 December 1986 during conflict over the independence of KwaNdebele.
Was beaten by Imbokodo members after being abducted from his home in Siyabuswa, KwaNdebele, in July 1986, during conflict over KwaNdebele independence.
Was abducted, beaten and stabbed by Imbokodo members in Vaalbank, KwaNdebele, on 14 April 1986 during conflict over the proposed independence of KwaNdebele.
Was beaten with sticks and sjamboks in Moutse, KwaNdebele, on 1 January 1986 by Imbokodo members. Ms Mahlangu was put in a room with others where the floor had been deliberately soaped to make it slippery and they were then sjambokked and beaten where they fell. Between 200 and 360 individuals ...
... KwaNdebele, on 11 February 1987 and was never seen again. Mr Mahlangu had been assisting the SAP investigative unit collecting statements about Imbokodo vigilante activity. Vigilantes and homeland officials were forced to flee the area in July 1986 because of fierce resistance against ...
Was abducted and beaten by Imbokodo vigilantes on 1 January 1986 during violent conflict over the incorporation of Moutse into KwaNdebele. KwaNdebele independence was cancelled in August 1986 due to fierce resistance in Moutse.
Was stabbed to death by members of the Imbokodo group in Siyabuswa, KwaNdebele, on 1 January 1986.
Was severely beaten by members of the Imbokodo vigilante group in KwaNdebele in 1985 during conflict over KwaNdebele independence.
Was abducted and severely assaulted by alleged members of the Imbokodo group in Mbibana, KwaNdebele, on 1 January 1986.
A UDF supporter who was beaten with sjamboks and knobkerries by Imbokodo members at the tribal authority in Leeuwfontein, KwaNdebele, in May 1986 during conflict over the independence of KwaNdebele.
Was severely assaulted with pick handles and sjamboks by members of the police and Imbokodo vigilante group in Moutse, KwaNdebele, on 1 January 1986. Mr Kgaphola was attending a meeting at the Royal Kraal about resistance to incorporation into KwaNdebele when the perpetrators attacked him and ...
Was shot dead in Moutse, KwaNdebele, on 1 January 1986 by local residents who mistook him for a member of Imbokodo during conflict over incorporation into KwaNdebele.
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