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Incorporation of Ekangala and Moutse into KwaNdebe

In order to boost KwaNdebele's viability as an 'independent' state, the South African government planned in 1983 to incorporate these two historically non-Ndebele areas into KwaNdebele. The tribal authority of Moutse repeatedly warned the apartheid state against incorporation. Their requests were ignored and Moutse became embroiled in violent political conflict during which hundreds of people died or were injured in clashes with the homeland police and with Imbokodo vigilantes. When the government announced that the nearly 5000 residents of Ekangala, near Bronkhorstspruit, would be incorporated into KwaNdebele, a wave of popular unrest swept through the area. The Ekangala Action Committee (EAC) led a campaign of mass resistance to which the KwaNdebele Police and Imbokodo vigilantes responded with assaults, terror attacks and abductions.

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