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TRC Final Report

Page Number (Original) 12

Volume 3

Chapter 1

Subsection 7


National Chronology

This chronology focuses primarily on the mandate period of the Commission, while referring to some significant events which helped shape the years 1960 to 1994. It includes events that are essentially of national significance, and a limited number of events that are of regional significance. In selecting these entries from more detailed regional chronologies, which form part of the Commission's records in the National Archives, an attempt is made to capture the unfolding drama of the South African conflict. The chronology should be consulted in relation to the chapter on Historical Context as well as volumes 2 and 3, which address national and regional events in narrative form.

1899 The South African War between Britain and the Boer Republics ends with British victory in 1902.
1910 Union of South Africa comes into being.
1912 South African Native National Congress or SANNC (later African National Congress or ANC) is founded.
1913 The Natives’ Land Act prescribes that no African person be allowed to own land
outside designated reserves (approximately 7% of the land is allocated for African
people, subsequently increased in 1936 to 13%).
1914 National Party is founded.
1916 Native Affairs Administration Bill confirms segregation.
1918 Formation of Afrikaner Broederbond.
1919 Industrial and Commercial Workers Union (ICU) is founded by Clements Kadalie.
1920 The Native Affairs Act creates separate administrative structures for people in African reserves. South Africa is granted a League of Nations mandate over South West Africa.
1921 Members of the Israelites, an African religious sect, are gunned down by police at Bulhoek in the Eastern Cape.
1922 The Bondelswarts rebellion crushed in South West Africa. The Rand revolt begins. 214 lives are lost as the strike is crushed.
1923 The Natives (Urban Areas) Act extends segregation to towns. SANNC becomes the African National Congress (ANC).
1925 Afrikaans is adopted as an official language.
1935 All-African Convention is founded.
1936 The Cape African franchise is abolished.
1941 The African Mineworkers’ Union is formed.
1943 ANC Youth League is formed.
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