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train violence

Explanation
Train violence first emerged in July 1900 with a series of attacks on commuters travelling on the Johannesburg-Soweto line, leaving one person dead and about 30 injured. Between 1990 and 1993, approximately 572 people died in more than 600 incidents of train violence. What started as unplanned group attacks and individual killings became more frequent planned, orchestrated incidents involving large groups of people. Gunmen would open fire from railway station platforms or spray commuters with bullets from inside coaches. Perpetrators of such attacks were intent on causing general terror rather than achieving a clear political objective. Train violence appeared to have been initiated by groups opposed to a democratic transition and the possibility of an ANC-led government. Both IFP members and members of the security forces were implicated in perpetrating attacks.

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small-scale attacks initiated by one or two attackers. 659 Some IFP leaders publicly dissociated themselves from the involvement of IFP members in train violence as early as 1990 – at an IFP youth rally in George Goch Stadium in My 1990, Stezi Lamula, chairperson of the IFP’s Mapetla, Soweto ...
Train violence 644 Train violence began in July 1990 with a series of attacks on commuters travelling on the Johannesburg–Soweto line that left one person dead and approximately thirty injured. Shortly after the initial outbreak of violence in Sebokeng, Soweto commuters were attacked on trains ...
... was limited in its ability to uncover the dynamics and causes of violent conflict within communities. Allegations of security force involvement in train violence 128 Train violence first emerged in July 1990 with a series of attacks on commuters travelling on the Johannesburg–Soweto line, ...
... First Interim Report: Violence in the taxi industry (Jun 1992) Second Interim Report: Violence in the taxi industry (Jul 1992) Interim Report: Train violence (Jul 1992) Interim Report: Violence in hostels (Sept 1992) Report: Preliminary inquiry into the Bisho incident on 7 September 1992 ...
... for personal gain. 20 In addition, he concluded that the security forces (and specifically 5 Reconnaissance Regiment) were probably involved in train violence; that there was probably a Chemical and Biological Warfare programme, as well as a probable attempt to get CCB operative Danie Phaal ...
... behind the random violence, which included military-style attacks on trains, drive-by shootings and a series of massacres and assassinations. The train violence swept the Rand from 1990 onwards. By June 1993 it had caused some 400 deaths and countless more injuries, and left thousands of ...
Cats. During his stay in Ermelo, Hlongwane was supported by the mayors of Davula and Ermelo who each paid him R800 and provided him with groceries. Train violence 234 Both local and regional IFP leadership were involved in the authorisation and planning of train violence. As indicated in the ...
... to Ms Joyce Seroke, violence was experienced in the form of random IFP/ANC violence in the community, drive-by shootings, third force attacks and train massacres. 159 Many youth were recruited into vigilante groups, which enjoyed the protection and support of the police. This led to further ...
... start of a series of attacks on train commuters in the Witwatersrand. Between 1990 and 1993, at least 572 people die in more than 600 incidents of train violence. The Pretoria Minute is signed by the ANC and the government in August. The ANC suspends the armed struggle. Violence on the ...
... implicated in violence in the Richmond area. 538 In addition, some evidence exists regarding: The involvement of security force operatives in train violence. Involvement of security forces in right-wing agendas and structures, possibly including the establishment of some right-wing ...
... was twenty-two years old when she and a group of her comrades decided to attend the funeral of Steve Biko in 1977. The police stopped themata train station and detained them. She described the severe torture and sexual assault to which she was subjected: They assaulted me. The other one ...
... areas respectively. 128 In addition, the Commission found some evidence regarding the involvement of security force operatives and IFP members in train violence and in right-wing agendas and structures, possibly including the establishment of some right-wing groupings; the involvement of an MI ...
... were made by the Goldstone Commission concerning alleged police involvement in the instigation of violence, including the organisation of train and hostel violence and gun-running. Those implicated included Lieutenant General Basie Smit, SAP Deputy Commissioner and Major General ...
... sat with the question, where to go now. Then individual commanders developed individual strategies … The last resort lay with the far right. By train violence, taxi wars, Boipatong, etc, can’t we create anarchy? 505 In such instances, security force and ex-security force members sometimes ...
... were tried for community and labour mobilisation, membership of the banned resistance movements, recruitment to banned organisations or military training, and the possession of banned literature. However, an increased number of sabotage attacks were reported across the whole province. In ...
... to protect communities from violent attack. 126. In September 1990, Mr Nelson Mandela publicly pledged the support of MK members to help form and train SDUs. The violence was so extensive that the A N C ’s Consultative Conference in December 1990 asserted that, ‘in the light of the endemic ...
... concerned and upset when the railway line that ran past their homes to the hostel became a site of violence. Shots were fired at residents as the train went past and commuters were thrown to their deaths off the train. At the Johannesburg hearing on 24 November 1998, SDU member and amnesty ...
command was to play a secondary role”. However, given the climate of political intolerance which prevailed and the role of senior members of MK in training and organising SDUs, it happened that in many cases the SDUs were seen as ANC structures. They have thus been analysed as ‘paramilitary ...
... Not only did the violence of the 1990s claim more lives, its nature changed dramatically. Indiscriminate massacres in which gunmen opened fire on train commuters, people drinking in shebeens or sleeping in their beds became endemic. Violence against women, children and the elderly rose ...
... are documented in other sections of the Commission’s report. 284 The Commission heard evidence of the involvement of IFP supporters in the train violence in the PWV region between 1990 and 1993. Approximately 572 people died in more than 600 incidents of train violence. 285 Inkatha ...
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