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East Rand violence

Explanation
From mid-1985 until the early 1990s, East Rand townships experienced some of the most violent conflict ever experienced in the PWV area. Train violence, taxi violence, conflict between township residents and hostels, between ANC self-defence units (SDUs) and IFP self-protection units (SPUs) and the activities of the Khumalo gang resulted in an unprecedented number of deaths and injuries. Covert operations by security force members also contributed to a general escalation of violence in the region. The security forces repeatedly ignored warnings of impending attacks and frequently refused to become involved in what it termed the 'black-on-black' conflict. They were accused by many of orchestrating and fanning conflict in order to undermine and weaken the recently unbanned ANC.

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... notable in this period was an increase in covert operations carried out by the security forces, as in ‘Operation Zero Zero’ where eight young East Rand activists died after being given booby-trapped grenades by Vlakplaas operative Joe Mamasela. Covert operations led to a general escalation ...
... 518 The necklace became a terrible symbol of the brutalisation of political conflict in South Africa during the mid-1980s and claimed at least 400 lives. Most of the victims were alleged informers, although councillors, police, and chiefs were also vulnerable to this sort of attack. ...
... Mr Bavumile Vilakazi. It is alleged that, as he was speaking to the crowd, the police opened fire without warning. Tear gas was also used. At least thirteen people died and more than 400 were injured. Many of the injured people were shot in the back. Police claimed to have acted in ...
... of the South African government received information that could have warned them of the violence to come. The EAC sent a memorandum to both the East Rand Administration Board and to the Department of Constitutional Development and Planning (DCDP), which was signed by over a thousand residents ...
... in late 1993 and that during this time he was asked by the AWB to approach the IFP with a view to joint weapons’ heists on police stations in the East Rand (T Chadwick [AM5193/97]). The weapons’ heist at the Eastern Cape Flagstaff police station in March 1994 was thwarted when the police were ...
... cold-blooded, calculated, deliberate ... it was about a collusion between various elements who had an interest in maintaining the status quo or at least retaining the power which they had from the apartheid system. 29 Vigilantes were recruited from the ranks of the homeland authorities, black ...
... The announcement initiated a wave of popular resistance amongst residents, most of whom had moved to the area from overcrowded areas of the East Rand. The Ekangala Action Committee (EAC) took the lead in organising a campaign of mass resistance. The EAC turned its attention to fighting ...
largely of politicised youth, sometimes armed with guns but often with home-made weapons (quashes) or other objects. In a number of townships on the East Rand, residents had agreed to pay R20 per household to SDUs in return for the protection of their neighbourhood. However, these ‘donations’ ...
Union conflict 670 In the far East Rand township of Ratanda, disagreement between workers over the need for a strike at the Escort Bacon Factory coalesced around two unions – the Food and Allied Workers Union (FAWU) affiliated to the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) and the ...
in March to disband the organisation later that year. In the Alexandra night vigil killings on 26 March 1991, fifteen people are shot dead and at least eighteen are injured in an attack on a funeral vigil for an ANC member who died in fighting in Alexandra which raged for three days. ...
... THE COMMISSION FINDS THAT, IN THE PERIOD 1990 TO 1994, ‘ETHNIC CLEANSING’ TOOK PLACE ON THE REEF, PARTICULARLY IN AREAS SUCH AS THE EAST RAND AND ALEXANDRA. THE COMMISSION FINDS THAT INDIVIDUALS AND COMMUNITIES BECAME IDENTIFIED BY THE LANGUAGE THEY SPOKE, THE CHURCH THEY ...
... children and youth in Johannesburg, Mr George Ndlozi gave testimony on the activities of young people involved in self-defence units (SDUs) on the East Rand during the early 1990s. He insisted that “far from being a bunch of undisciplined comrades or the lost generation, SDUs were in many ways ...
... drive-by shootings, indiscriminate massacres on trains or in certain residential areas, and armed political conflicts in KwaZulu-Natal and the East Rand where the responsibility of individual actors cannot be identified with precision.17 Volume Three of this report deals with human rights ...
Abductions followed by executions 171. Abductions of suspects were a particular feature of the East Rand SDUs. The suspects would be taken for questioning and assaulted in order to extract a confession. These appeared invariably to be followed by summary execution. Amnesty applicants often ...
... to access documents pertaining to gross human rights violations in the period under review. While an enormous number of records was destroyed, not least as South Africa moved towards democratic rule, many crucial documents survived. These included Cabinet minutes and minutes of the State Security ...
... the deaths in detention of people such as Steve Biko, Neil Aggett, and others; necklacings, and the so-called ‘black on black’ violence on the East Rand and in KwaZulu Natal which arose from the rivalries between IFP and first the UDF and later the ANC. Our country is soaked in the blood of ...
hostels. In a number of instances, houses were occupied at the time of the attacks. Abduction of suspects was a particular modus operandi of the East Rand SDUs. This was followed by interrogation of suspects, and later by summary execution. In this sense, SDUs acted no differently from ...
... and communities against illegitimate state structures. Mr Potlako Mokgwadi Saboshego (first name and title please), a student activist from the East Rand, described the role of students thus: After some time, the parents stood back because, when we held meetings at school, the police would ...
... for other communities on the road to reconciliation. Duduza is a black township that is part of the Greater Nigel Area. Nigel is a town on the East Rand (Gauteng) with neighbouring African, Indian and Coloured townships. The total population of the town is approximately 150 – 200 000. Over ...
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