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TRC Final Report

Page Number (Original) 17

Volume 5

Chapter 1

Subsection 7

The violation types

The tables below show the HRV categories and the types of violations within each.

Beaten to death BEATING Beaten to death by being hit, kicked, punched, specifying description of part of body assaulted, if known (e.g. feet, face, head, genitals, breasts), or object used (e.g. sjambok, baton, gun, rifle, stick, rope, whip, plank, beat against wall).
Burnt to death BURNING Killed in a fire or burnt to death using petrol, chemicals, fire, scalding, arson. This does not include ‘necklacing’ or petrol bombing.
Killed by poison, drugs or chemicals CHEMICALS Killed by poison, drugs, or household substance, such as bleach or drain cleaner.
Killed by drowning DROWNING Drowned in a river, swimming pool, or even in a bucket of water.
Killed by electrocution ELECTRIC Killed by an electric shock.
Killing by death sentence EXECUTE Hanged or shot as decided by a formal body (court or tribunal) such as the state, homeland state, or political party. It is the consequence of a death sentence.
Killed in an explosion EXPLOSION Killed by any manufactured explosive or bomb, but not a petrol bomb (see below). Explosives include dynamite, landmine, limpet mine, car bomb, hand grenade, plastic explosives, detonator, booby-trap, letter bomb, parcel bomb, special device (e.g. walkman).
Killed by exposure EXPOSURE Person dies after being subjected to extremes such as heat, cold, weather, exercise, forced labour.
Necklacing NECKLACING Burnt with petrol and tyre. Necklacing is coded separately from burning, because it featured heavily in the past. It is differentiated from, for example, setting alight with petrol or burning in a house.
Other type killing OTHER All other methods of killing, including being buried alive, strangling, tear gas, decapitation, disembowelling.
Petrol bomb PETROL BOMB Killed by a burning bottle of petrol. Petrol bombing falls in a category between burning and bombing, so, like necklacing, it is useful to code it separately. Also called Molotov Cocktail.
Shot dead SHOOTING Shot and killed by live bullet, gunshot, birdshot, buckshot, pellets, rubber bullet.
Stabbed to death STABBING Killed with a sharp object, such as a knife, panga, axe, scissors, spear (including assegai).
Suspicious suicide or accident STAGED Died in a suspicious suicide or fatal accident. Examples are: slipped on soap, jumped out of window, fell down stairs, hanged oneself, car accident, booby-trapped hand grenades or explosives, shot oneself.
Stoned to death STONING Killed with bricks, stones or other thrown missile.
Tortured to death TORTURE Tortured to death.
Unknown cause of death UNKNOWN Person is dead, but there is no further information.
Killing involving vehicle VEHICLE Dragged behind, thrown out of, driven over, put in a boot of car, specifying type of vehicle involved (for example, car, train, truck, van, bakkie, Hippo, Casspir). Not a car bomb (see bombing)
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