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Pondoland revolt

The Pondoland revolt, also known as Nonqulwana , took place in Pondoland in the eastern Transkei in the late 1950s and early 1960s. It was an extended uprising by Pondoland groups - particularly ANC supporters who referred to themselves as iKongo members - against the imposition of tribal authorities and impending self-government for Transkei. Numerous incidents of violence took place during 1960, including clashes between security forces and iKongo members, attacks by iKongo members on chiefs and those regarded as collaborating with chiefs or police, and the destruction of iKongo members' homes by chiefs. On 6 June 1960, conflict developed between security forces and iKongo members at Ngquza Hill in the Lusikisiki region of Pondoland, when security forces broke up an iKongo meeting. Victims told the Commission that the meeting was tear-gassed from aircraft, after which police on the ground moved in, some of them opening fire, killing at least 11 iKongo members. Immediately after the Ngquza shootings, police rounded up suspects. Family members were also assaulted by police in attempts to track suspects. Legal methods used by the security forces to crush this revolt included the declaration of a state of emergency on 30 November 1960, widespread detentions, criminal prosecutions and banishment of families. Illegal methods included torture in custody (primarily in detention), deaths in custody, apparently due to treatment received, and the use of unnecessary force in public order policing. Mkambati forest was frequently named as a site of torture. This appears to have been a camp with tents in the forest during the 1960s, possibly set up during the Pondoland revolt as a police crisis measure, later becoming an established police station.

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