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Pondoland revolt

Explanation
The Pondoland revolt, also known as Nonqulwana , took place in Pondoland in the eastern Transkei in the late 1950s and early 1960s. It was an extended uprising by Pondoland groups - particularly ANC supporters who referred to themselves as iKongo members - against the imposition of tribal authorities and impending self-government for Transkei. Numerous incidents of violence took place during 1960, including clashes between security forces and iKongo members, attacks by iKongo members on chiefs and those regarded as collaborating with chiefs or police, and the destruction of iKongo members' homes by chiefs. On 6 June 1960, conflict developed between security forces and iKongo members at Ngquza Hill in the Lusikisiki region of Pondoland, when security forces broke up an iKongo meeting. Victims told the Commission that the meeting was tear-gassed from aircraft, after which police on the ground moved in, some of them opening fire, killing at least 11 iKongo members. Immediately after the Ngquza shootings, police rounded up suspects. Family members were also assaulted by police in attempts to track suspects. Legal methods used by the security forces to crush this revolt included the declaration of a state of emergency on 30 November 1960, widespread detentions, criminal prosecutions and banishment of families. Illegal methods included torture in custody (primarily in detention), deaths in custody, apparently due to treatment received, and the use of unnecessary force in public order policing. Mkambati forest was frequently named as a site of torture. This appears to have been a camp with tents in the forest during the 1960s, possibly set up during the Pondoland revolt as a police crisis measure, later becoming an established police station.

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Was detained by members of the SAP on several occasions in 1962 in Bizana, Transkei, during the Pondoland revolt. Her husband was shot dead by the police during the revolt. See Pondoland revolt.
Was executed in Pretoria on 5 April 1962 for his participation in the Pondoland Revolt, an extended uprising by groups in Pondoland against imposed tribal authorities and self-government for Transkei. See Pondoland revolt.
An iKongo member who was executed on 29 March 1962 in Pretoria Central prison, for his involvement in the Pondoland Revolt. See Pondoland revolt.
An ANC supporter who was severely assaulted by members of the SAP in 1962 at Lusikisiki police station, Transkei, because of his involvement in the Pondoland revolt. See Pondoland revolt.
An ANC member who was detained in 1960 in Bizana, Transkei, because of his involvement in the Pondoland revolt. See Pondoland revolt.
She lost her homestead in an arson attack in 1960 in Bizana, Transkei, during the Pondoland revolt. See Pondoland revolt.
Was beaten to death by members of the SAP in Bizana, Transkei, in 1963 during the Pondoland revolt. See Pondoland revolt.
An ANC member who was executed in Pretoria on 21 March 1962 after he was accused of being an accomplice to murder during the Pondoland Revolt. See Pondoland revolt.
An ANC member who was tortured while in detention in Bizana, Transkei, in March 1960 during the Pondoland revolt. See Pondoland revolt.
An iKongo member who was shot by members of the SAP on 6 June 1960 at Elusikweni, near Flagstaff, Transkei, because of his involvement in the Pondoland revolt. See Pondoland revolt.
An ANC supporter who lost his home of seven huts in an arson attack in March 1960 in Entsimbini, near Bizana, Transkei, during the Pondoland revolt. See Pondoland revolt.
An iKongo member who was abducted by members of the SAP on 6 June 1960 in Flagstaff, Transkei, following his involvement in the Pondoland revolt. He has never been seen again. See Pondoland revolt.
An ANC supporter who was assaulted in 1960 in Mount Ayliff and Lusikisiki police stations in Transkei, while he was serving a three-year detention for his involvement in the Pondoland revolt. See Pondoland revolt.
She lost her house and livestock in an arson attack in May 1960 at Empetsheni, near Bizana, Transkei, during the Pondoland revolt. See Pondoland revolt.
Was beaten to death by members of the members of the SAP in May 1960 at Empetsheni, near Bizana, Transkei during the Pondoland revolt. See Pondoland revolt.
An ANC supporter who was severely beaten by members of the security forces in 1960 in Bizana, Transkei, during the Pondoland revolt. See Pondoland revolt.
An iKongo member who was shot by members of the SAP on 6 June 1960 at Ngquza Hill in Lusikisiki, Transkei, where he had attended a meeting during the Pondoland revolt. See Pondoland revolt.
Was detained and tortured in June 1960 and in 1970 in Flagstaff, Transkei, because of his involvement in the Pondoland revolt. See Pondoland revolt.
Was assaulted by members of the SAP in March 1960 in Bizana, Transkei, because of his involvement in the Pondoland revolt. See Pondoland revolt.
An ANC supporter who was stabbed and hacked to death on 3 December 1960 in Bizana, Transkei, during the Pondoland revolt. See Pondoland revolt.
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